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Material Families

Material Families Examples Strengths Limitations Typical Applications
Single crystals (PMN-PT's, PZN-PTs, etc) PMNT-28, TRS-X2C Very high d33 (>2000), very high coupling (>90%) Low TC, easily de-poled by pressure, very expensive, limited size Imaging, small elements
PNN's PKI 906 High d33 and dielectric constants Low TC poor ceramic Imaging, small elements
PMN's PMN-85 High dielectric constants Electrostrictors (must be biased) Sonar
Soft PZTs K740, K600, K350 High d33, coupling, and dielectric constants Low TC's Imaging, receivers
Hard PZTs K270, K278, K300 High Qs, high drive capability Medium activity Sonar, cleaners, welders
Special hard PZTs K320, K340 Very high Qs, high dielectric constants Medium activity High drive small elements
Na, K Niobates   Non lead-based Low activity, soluble in water  
Lead Metaniobates K81, K91, K83, K85 Low Q, high TC Low activity, poor ceramic NDT
Bismuth Titanates K15, K12 Very high TC Very low activity High temp accelerometers
Ga Phosphates, Li Niobates. Quartz, etc.   Very high TC Extremely low activity Clocks, resonators, high frequency filters

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